Bryan Davis of Lost Spirits is at it again. Armed with a gas chromatograph and an extensive library of rum, he’s undertaken extensive chemical analysis of various rums near and dear to the heart of rummies worldwide.
In the first paper on the Lost Spirits site, he covered how trace carboxylic esters are responsible for the fruit flavors commonly found in rums, as well as the effects of column vs. pot stills. In the second paper, Bryan focuses his chromatograph on a 33 year aged pot still rum and how the semi-volatile organics (SVOCs) change with barrel aging. Now, it’s natural to wonder which rum this is. While Bryan won’t reveal, I will assert that there are very few pot still rums that are aged 30 years or more, and which are generally available – Do your own digging.
Among the interesting tidbits that jumped out at me on first reading was that the gas chromatograph appears to prove that some amount of sugar was added at some point in the process. Up till now, work by Richard Seale and Johnny Drejer have measured sugar contents by indirect methods (specific gravity). To my knowledge, Bryan’s study is among the first detailed published studies to show the addition of sucrose by more direct, chemical analysis.
There’s lots more rummy science to wonk out about. Check it out here.
Longtime readers know I’m a big fan of Lost Spirits Distillery in central California. I’ve written about them extensively, with most of the hard science the result of long conversations with Bryan Davis, co-owner and master distiller. This is really wonky stuff: yeasts, acids, esters, and chemical analysis – true rum science.
Very recently, Bryan put up the first (of what hopefully will be several) pages on the Lost Spirits site where he shares the results of in-depth chemical analysis of pairs of rums, including annotated gas chromatographs. Titled “Trace Carboxylic Acid & Ester Origin in Mature Spirits”, it’s full of meaty observations like this:
This observation appears to confirm that the trace ester density is not only predetermined prior to the spirit entering the cask but that the distillation cuts and level of rectification has a massive effect on the final character of the aged spirit.
Having recently gotten my hands on the Polynesian Inspired rum from Lost Spirits Distillery, I’ve been test driving it and comparing it to their first rum, Navy Style. I’ve written about Lost Spirits quite a bit already, and have chatted with Bryan quite a bit about his process, including him giving me a custom presentation of his talk from the 2014 Miami Rum Renaissance. With the context of my previous post (highly suggested background reading) I can better describe the differences between the two rums. I’ll end with a few other interesting anecdotes about Lost Spirits Distillery that Bryan shared.
Polynesian Inspired Rum
Coming in at 132 proof, the Polynesian Inspired rum is a take-no-prisoners powerhouse of a rum. Starting with the label, there are obvious stylistic similarities between the Polynesian and the Navy rums. The Polynesian label is essentially the Navy label’s “Pirates of the Caribbean” ships and skulls replaced with Maori and Easter Island elements, and a color change. The fonts and other decorative details remain essentially the same.
The rum’s hue is a solid medium-to-dark gold, but compared to its Navy Style stable mate is noticeably lighter in color. On the nose both rums start with a similar strong, pleasing molasses element but eventually go in different directions, the Polynesian finishing a bit lighter and fruitier. This isn’t an accident. When deciding what the Polynesian should be, Bryan accented the pineapple aspect since it’s an essential Polynesian flavor.
In my prior post about Lost Spirits, I covered the seven ways that flavor can be controlled via science. The sixth step I mentioned is barrel aging, which is where the simpler fruit and spicy smelling esters get merged into the longer chained honey esters. In that post, I described how the ester Ethyl Butyrate has a strong pineapple smell. Given that you want a rum with a strong pineapple element it’s reasonable that you’d want to minimize the transformation of this ester into other esters. Bryan accomplishes this by using a different barrel preparation that minimizes the amount of phenols that convert the short chain esters (fruity) into long chain esters (honey). In addition, the amount of rancio, the nutty smell described in step 7 of my earlier post is dialed down considerably. Up to the barrel aging step though, the Navy Style and Polynesian Inspired rums are essentially the same.
On the palate, assuming you’re up to sipping 132 proof rum, the Polynesian is much like you’d expect given the nose – A strong molasses flavor that turns to pineapple and butterscotch. Bryan says with a few drops of water it turns into a “pineapple bomb” and I can attest to that.
A few days after my bottle arrived, Jason Alexander of Tacoma Cabana and I sat together and tasted the Polynesian together. Jason, with his encyclopedic Tiki knowledge immediately thought it would work well in a Polynesian Paralysis variation. A few days later he sent me his recipe:
Polynesian Paralysis – Jason Alexander Variation • 3/4oz pineapple • 3/4oz lemon • 3/4oz Lilikoi juice (sub passion fruit syrup) • 1/2oz orgeat • 1/2oz falernum • 1/2oz Okolehao (A Hawaiian spirit, sub bourbon if not available.) • 2oz Lost Spirits Polynesian Rum
Flash blend with about a cup of ice
Lost Spirits – Diving Deeper
Beyond just getting a custom presentation of the Bryan’s Rum Renaissance presentation, I interjected a number of questions that veered off into other interesting topics. First and foremost, I was surprised to learn that Lost Spirits has a number of patents filed on his processes, and that Bryan licenses technology and consults for major distillers. In a sense Lost Spirits Distillery is his laboratory where he gets to do all sorts of fun experiments without needing the distillery to make a certain amount of money to stay afloat.
Lost Spirits first came out with a series of whiskeys including three different Leviathan releases and an Umami release. The distillery continues to age more whiskey stock and they have plenty of back orders, so naturally the question is “Why make a rum?” The initial reason Bryan and Joanne Haruta, his business partner started making rum was to season their whiskey barrels. Over time they found themselves enjoying the rum quite a bit and they decided to sell it. These days they find themselves focusing more and more on the rum side of things. Bryan says one reason for focusing on rum is that high end whiskey buyers typically buy just a bottle or two and add it to their 600 bottle collection whereas serious rum lovers will buy and consume multiple bottles over time.
As we now know, Cuban is the next rum style coming from Lost Spirits. However Bryan also mentioned an interest in doing a “Jamaican ester bomb” which I immediately endorsed with all available enthusiasm. But don’t expect a clone of Jamaican dunder rum, as one of the central elements of Jamaican dunder is clostridium saccharobutyricum which grows optimally in the soil surrounding the dunder pit. Bryan grows his “dunder” in five gallon plastic buckets that are controlled with lab grown bacterias, and thus he has the freedom to control the bacteria, tailoring it to the flavor profile he wants. In Jamaica, dunder pits aren’t such a big deal at the distilleries. In Monterey County, CA a bacteria pit is out of the question as it might create some serious problems with the health inspector.
When deciding what style of rum to make, here’s the Lost Spirits process: • Design a really cool label • Based on the label, envision what the rum tastes like • Do the science to produce a rum with that flavor profile.
In my post on Lost Spirits Navy Style rum, I said “You can easily imagine a pirate drinking it in the 1700s.” Thus, it delighted me then when Bryan recounted that they watched Pirates of the Caribbean approximately 40 times when deciding what the Navy Style should taste like.
For the Polynesian, Bryan set out to make a rum that’s perfect for all sorts of Tiki drinks. Another reason for doing the Polynesian rum is to show that the notion of molasses “terroir” isn’t nearly as important as some believe. Starting with the same ingredients and by tweaking just a few processes, Lost Spirits Distillery has created two largely different rums, and a third rum, the soon to be available Cuban style, should further prove this point.
Recently Bryan Davis, organic chemistry “hacker” and co-owner of Lost Spirits Distillery walked me through his presentation on creating highly flavorful rum that he gave at the Miami Rum Renaissance in April 2014. In this post I’ll present a summarized version, yet still filled with details you don’t normally hear about in distiller descriptions. While I’m focused mostly on rum, Lost Spirits Distillery also makes other spirits including some award winning Whiskeys. Almost all of the “science” below applies equally to rum, whiskey and their other spirits.
At the 30,000 foot level, the flavoring of a spirit involves a series of steps in a pipeline. At each point, biological and chemical reactions occur that add, modify or remove the organic compounds that are ultimately what we perceive as flavor. The basic steps of rum production: creating a mash (molasses in the case of rum), fermenting it, distilling it, then barrel aging it are essentially the same from producer to producer. What Bryan Davis does particularly well is understand exactly the chemical reactions taking place at each stage, was well as knowing how to impact the steps so that the desired flavor compounds come through and the unpleasant compounds are minimized.
When you read tasting reviews of a spirit, you’ll hear terms like “fruity”, “pineapple”, “cloves”, and “smokey”, used to describe the taste. Those flavors come from esters which are organic compounds. Each ester has its own particular smell and we humans sense some esters at very low concentrations while others require a much higher concentration before we notice them.
What I find particularly fascinating after talking with Bryan is that all the esters in the final rum aren’t necessarily there in the beginning phases. In fact there are points along the way where downright awful smelling acids undergo chemical bonding to alcohols (becoming esters) and come out smelling like wholesome fruity goodness.
Let’s look at a few examples – Don’t worry, I won’t go total biochemist on you, and don’t need to know what Phenylethyl Acetate is. Bryan says that to understand the flavor of rum, you need to understand pineapple, honey, and chocolate. Easy enough, right? Not so fast! Consider this set of organic compounds:
Hopefully you’ll never encounter all that, right? As it turns out, this is the set of esters found in pineapple. While all are present, it’s the ethyl butyrate (ninth down on the left) and ethyl octanoate (top right corner), that are the core flavor of pineapple – By themselves you’d smell the essence of pineapple but not the full spectrum present with an actual pineapple in front of you. Now, if you took this mix of esters, lowered the amount of ethyl butyrate and increased the amount of octyl acetate (third down on the right), you’d get the smell of oranges. Doing the same with decyl acetate (bottom, right) would give you a pear smell. The science of rum that Bryan Davis practices is knowing which esters he wants, which he doesn’t and creating the right conditions so that the desired esters dominate.
So how does this relate to pineapple, honey and chocolate? To get to the desired esters, sometimes you start with something very unpleasant, then make it undergo a chemical process with other compounds to produce a desired ester. Some examples:
Ethanol (the alcohol produced via fermentation)
Butyric Acid (Smells like vomit)
Ethyl Butyrate (The smell of Pineapple)
Now, let’s be very clear – This isn’t simply mixing the two together that produces the desired result. It must be actual chemical bonding.
What about spice? Let’s take cinnamon for an example:
Cinnamic acid (Oak barrels are a good source)
Ethyl Cinnamate (The smell of cinnamon)
Ethyl Cinnamate and related compounds are a subcategory of esters called phenols. Phenols are the spicier, woody part of the smell spectrum.
What would happen if you chemically bonded a fruity ester with a spicy phenol? This is where the honey comes into play:
Ethyl Butyrate (Pineapple smell)
Phenol Ethyl Butyrate (A honey, floral smell)
This last ester above is a “long chain” ester composed of simpler esters. Bryan points out that these types of esters are solely the result of the barrel aging part of the process.
What we’ve just walked through is a very small set of esters. In reality, there are hundreds of esters in play in a rum, typically around 300, as opposed to 80 in a fruit. The entire rum making process is about coaxing all these good and bad esters into a desirable combination.
Seven ways to supercharge flavors
Step 1 – Material selection – What to ferment?
Lost Spirits uses baking grade molasses as their starting point for rums, whereas other distillers will often use lesser quality molasses. This isn’t just a nicety. Sulfur is often used to aid the extraction of sucrose from the pressed sugar juice, and if they used a lesser grade of molasses, the sulfur would need to be removed during the distillation process via higher distillation. While you could do that, you’d also extract out more of the good flavors you’d worked hard to introduce.
A fun side note here – In his presentation, Bryan talks about lignins, which are the complex polymers that give sugar cane stalks their structure. When they stalks are crushed to extract the juice, some amount of lignin remains in the juice. When the juice is later boiled, the lignins undergo thermal decomposition into simpler phenolic acids that we perceive as the smoky flavor from molasses.
Step 2 – Dunder – A bacteria farm
The topic of dunder a “rum story” favorite of mine and amusing to watch people’s reaction when you tell it. During the fermentation process you need a good, plentiful source of bacteria. The dunder “pit” is where you “grow your pet bacteria” as Bryan puts it. It doesn’t really matter what organic materials you put in your dunder pit as long as it helps your target bacteria grow. In old-school rum production the spent mash after distillation was thrown into a pit in the ground to replenish the dunder. Over time all sorts of interesting bacteria fester and multiply in the pit. It’s said that some distilleries even added bat carcasses into dunder pits along with who knows what else. Dunder pits are just a really awful, vile cesspool of bacteria. The bacteria in the dunder form carboxylic acids which have a rotting smell but will eventually be converted into something much better.
While Lost Spirits is all for authenticity, there are numerous reasons why a dunder pit in the middle of Monterey County, CA farmland would be problematic, not the least being the health inspector. Instead, Bryan uses five gallon plastic buckets and things like overripe bananas for his dunder pit. It took him many iterations to find the right set of ingredients to make a good dunder. By starting with an optimal dunder, Bryan is able to obtain many desired esters during the fermentation process, rather than waiting years for them slowly to form in a barrel.
Step 3 – Creating carboxylic acids from yeast
At this point in the process, you have a pool of bacteria. This is combined with yeast and the molasses to start the fermentation processes which produces a number of compounds including various alcohols such as ethanol, and esters. You’ve got fuel (the molasses), and two living organisms, bacteria and yeast fighting for resources to grow and multiply. Ordinarily, the bacteria would always win as they multiply faster than yeast does. However, yeast knows how to cheat – It creates carboxylic acids which slow the growth of the bacteria and when combined with alcohol become esters which as we now know are generally desirable, flavor-wise. Different strains of yeast produce different carboxylic acids so knowing the types of bacteria you have in your dunder, you can select yeast strains that result in desirable tasting esters.
Step 4 – Stressing the yeast
When yeast is under stress, i.e. less than optimal conditions it will combine alcohols with carboxylic acids to create esters. There are apparently many ways of stressing the yeast. Bryan uses nitrogen deprivation to weaken the cell walls. It’s during this phase many of the nasty smelling components mentioned earlier get turned into better tasting compounds.
Step 5 – Distillation
Distillation uses the fact that different types of liquid, e.g. ethanol, methanol, water, etc… boil at different temperatures. By heating the fermented mash and selectively capturing the vapor at the right intervals you can concentrate the desired parts and reduce the undesired components such as methanol.
Some distillers, especially vodka producers go to great lengths to distill their product multiple times to make it as pure and as possible. However, as you’ve seen already the Lost Spirits process focuses on creating the best possible “input” as possible – More of the desirable elements and less of the bad elements that need to be filtered out. With such an optimal input heavy distillation would only serve to remove many desired flavor elements. Thus, Bryan built a pot still that does less separation than a still used for something like Irish whiskey or vodka. For the still-wonks out there, his still has a relatively short neck.
Step 6 – Barrel Aging
For barrel aging the Navy Style and Polynesian Rums, Bryan uses heavily charred new American oak barrels seasoned with Oloroso sherry. While no sugar is directly added to the rum post-distillation, the sherry does impart a very small sugar content which adds to the flavor profile.
Regarding the effect of barrel aging, Bryan mentions that the oak trees rigidity comes from lignin, the same thing I mentioned earlier when talking about sugar cane and molasses. The charring of the barrels acts as a “knife” to break up the lignins into phenolics, which you may recall are the “smoke” aromas, and will go on to form the spice flavored esters. American oak barrels were chosen because the phenols resulting from it are disproportionately high in phenolic precursors to vanillin and other vanilla smelling chemicals. It’s during the barrel aging process that the simpler fruity and spicy esters are converted into the more complex honey-like esters.
Step 7 – The Holy Grail of Rancio
Rancio, or Benzaldehyde & related compounds to be formal, is the “nutty” flavor you find in spirits that have aged for a relatively long time. Sherry is the most familiar example of rancio. Bryan points out that Rancio formation is a separate process from “regular” barrel aging described above and that rancio is a chemical decomposition by-product of the wood lignins after very long exposure to a solvent (water and alcohol).
In the case of sherry and some rums, the rancio comes from the solera method, wherein the spirit spends time in a series of barrels. The first barrel only holds new make spirit, the second barrel only holds spirit drawn from the first barrel, the third barrel only holds spirit drawn from the second barrel, and so on. Eventually, the spirit is removed from the oldest barrel for bottling. It should be obvious that the oldest barrel(s) have had spirits in them for a very long time, and as such are imparting the most rancio.
While there’s a lot of tradition with Rancio, it can take a very long time before you have barrels that are capable of adding rancio. Bryan’s innovation was in figuring out how to treat his barrels so that the lignins have started to decompose by the time of their first use. Simply put, he’s supercharged the rancio process and put it under his control.
During our conversation, Bryan mentioned that his first rum (Navy Style) was created to show off all aspects of his technical innovations in the spirit making process. Subsequent rums may not use all these tricks, or may add others. In my next post I’ll talk about the Polynesian Inspired rum and how it differs from the Navy Style. Finally, a big thanks to Bryan for reviewing this post for technical accuracy.
A nice, easily readable post for folks curious about whiskey over on DrinkSpirits this morning. It talks about barrel aging of whiskeys, the difference between Scotch and Bourbon aging, and how environment matters more than the number years in a barrel. Plus, empirical proof! The Buffalo Trace folks aged the same distillate for an identical length of time in three different locations in their aging warehouse, and got very different results which you can buy and taste for yourself.
Bourbon (i.e American whiskey) must be aged in new charred oak barrels, whereas Scotch is aged in previously used barrels, often bourbon barrels. Yes, we Americans ship a lot of our used barrels overseas for use in aging other spirits.
Bourbon usually reaches optimal flavor somewhere around 8 years, whereas Scotch takes several years longer.
Kentucky has much wider temperature variation than Scotland. Bigger temperature swings mean the whiskey expands/contracts more, thus passing through the wood in the barrel more.
Just because it’s aged longer doesn’t mean it’s better. You can over-age.
As you can imagine, the same environmental considerations apply to rum, which ages in a very hot Caribbean environment.
I frequently make new and unusual cocktails for guests at my house. Something I’ve come to enjoy is telling a story about every drink I make. Maybe it’s the unusual spirit I’ve just acquired, perhaps an unusual combination of ingredients, or a tale of how a particular bottle came to reside in my bar. My wife and I occasionally do cocktail-themed dinner parties – friends know them as “Rumpocalypse”, and every drink gets a few minutes about its background and why I chose it. Telling people about what they’ve got in front of them creates a personal connection and often emboldens them to share their thoughts about the drink, which is helpful for me in knowing how to craft an even better experience for them.
Likewise, I use slow times at bars to connect with the bartenders, asking “Is there anything interesting you’re working on?” This often yields something off-menu and that the bartender is eager to talk about. When the drink arrives I ask them to tell me a story about it. Done at the right time, e.g not during a slammed Saturday night, you’ll often have an experience you otherwise might miss.
Recently, a story that grabbed me and which I enjoy sharing, is rum from Lost Spirits Distillery. Currently there are two iterations, both “Navy style”, at 55% and 68% ABV. The story of these rums is great for several reasons. First, they have a strong, dark, forceful flavor, very much in the Jamaican style with a ton of “esters”, which are a chemical compound that provides all sorts of flavors. In the case of Jamaican style rums, I find these esters to have a pleasant, fruit-like flavor like plum, raisin or banana. The Lost Spirits rums are a dark red hue. You can easily imagine a pirate drinking it in the 1700s.
Next, although the flavor of these rums screams Jamaican or someplace else deep in the Caribbean, they’re actually made in Monterey, California, not far from where I grew up and went to college. I frequently drove through the farm fields in the region, and never once saw sugar cane, so the thought of a rum distillery there seems a bit alien, but very cool. These days many distilleries don’t grow their own sugar cane, and instead import molasses from elsewhere. What gives Lost Spirits an edge here is that they use baking grade molasses, which has more sugars than molasses that’s been refined more times to extract as much sucrose as possible.
Finally, and most importantly, the Lost Spirits story appeals to me because of science! While rum aficionados have come to expect that a deep flavorful rum needs to spend many years in the barrel, Lost Spirits uses deep knowledge of the chemical processes in play during fermentation, distillation and aging to focus and concentrate the flavor producing process.
A couple of examples: During the fermentation process, distiller Bryan Davis deprives the yeast of nitrogen, thereby weakening the cell walls and stressing the yeast. Quoting him: “…properly managed the yeast can produce as many short chained esters as the first few years in a cask.” As for barrel aging, Bryan optimizes his cask preparation to get the goodness of long barrel aging in a shorter period of time. Again quoting: “We use a controlled charring process incorporating heat, flame, and even special frequencies of light to break the compounds we want out fast.” The full description of all the science (highly entertaining for a wonk like me) can be found here.
To my taste and sensibilities, the most natural comparison to the 55% ABV version is Smith & Cross. They have similar alcohol contents (55% vs 57%). The Lost Spirits is darker, with less fruit on the nose and palate than the Smith & Cross. In place of the fruit, I taste more of the molasses. The best simple description I have for the Lost Spirits taste is somewhere between Smith & Cross and Lemon Hart 151. There are several well-written reviews out there with more tasting notes, including here and here.
Although I can ease into sipping the Lost Spirits with its high alcoholic content, I prefer to use it in relatively simple drinks where its unique flavor elements stand out, rather than a multi-rum tiki concoction. It certainly works well in tiki, but for something this special and relatively rare, I make sure to enjoy every drop to the fullest.
I’ve read that Lost Spirits Distillery has another style of rum on the way, this one being Polynesian inspired. Given my experience with the Navy Style, I’m grabbing as much of the Polynesian expression as I can as soon as it’s available!
My go-to recipe using Lost Spirits Navy Style rum is a variation of the Scarr Power from Rumba in Seattle. Rumba’s Scarr Power uses Smith & Cross and I simply swap in the Lost Spirits 55%. Much as I enjoy the Smith&Cross-based original, the Lost Spirits version is just fantastic.
1.5 oz Lost Spirits Navy Style rum, 55% ABV
.75 oz fresh squeezed lime juice
.5 oz 2:1 Nutmeg syrup
Add all ingredients to a small glass. Add a large ice cube or two, stir gently. Garnish with orange peel if desired.
I deliberately don’t shake this drink, so as to keep the dilution to a minimum. I also use a small old-fashion glass, ~ 5 oz, so that a single large ice cube is nearly submerged and providing just enough chilling and dilution as the drink is slowly consumed.