Minimalist Tiki: What you truly need to make classic Tiki Cocktails

What follows is the original Minimalist Tiki article that inspired the 2019 book of the same name. (Available at

The popularity of this article led Mrs. Wonk and I to write a 308 page book expanding on the topics below, and featuring 130 original Tiki Drink recipes from today’s best bartenders and bars.

However, it recently occurred to me that exotic Tiki recipes specifying esoteric ingredients and very specific rums can seem a little daunting to the beginning or mid-level home bartending enthusiast. I imagine it’s easy to flip though a Tiki recipe book (or the incredible Beachbum Berry’s Total Tiki app) and feel deflated that you can’t find a single recipe with what’s already in your home bar.

With this in mind, I set out on a research project: Finding the minimum set of ingredients needed to make a dozen or so of the most popular, beloved Tiki and tropical drinks. By deconstructing classic Tiki recipes and finding the most common elements, I created a minimal working set of ingredients, enabling you to craft all sorts tropical libations without spending a fortune and taking over your living space.  It’s too late for me — the home bar spans several rooms — but with what follows, you can enjoy top- notch Tiki cocktails at home with limited space and budget.

My starting point is a list of Tiki/tropical cocktails I consider the essential classics; as with all “best of” lists, it’s completely subjective. However, I’ve conferred with Jason Alexander, @tikicommando. who makes classic and original Tiki drinks for a living at the Tacoma Cabana. For consistency, my recipe reference is the aforementioned Total Tiki app. Because some Tiki recipes have evolved with multiple variations, when there’s more than one recipe I’ve selected the oldest version. Without further adieu, here we go:

  • Mai Tai (1944)
  • Zombie (1934)
  • Jet Pilot (1958)
  • Fog Cutter (1940s)
  • Navy Grog (1941)
  • Planter’s Punch (1937)
  • Rum Barrel (1940s)
  • Three Dots and a Dash (1940s)
  • 151 Swizzle (1940s)
  • Cobra’s Fang (1937)
  • Singapore Sling (1937)
  • Hurricane (1940s)
  • Painkiller (1971)
  • Daiquiri (1890s)

The (brief) methodology

The next step was finding union of all the ingredients in the above recipes. For each ingredient in any drink (with the exception of rums, see below) I noted all recipes using that particular ingredient. I then sorted the ingredients by which is used most frequently. Finally, I categorized the ingredients into three metaphorical buckets: rums, citrus juices, and other ingredients.

Bucket One:  Rums

Let’s start with the rum category. Here I’m committing Tiki heresy and running counter to the notion of recipe authenticity. Ideally you’d have a wide selection of each rum category at your disposal and use the exact type of rum specified. However, rum-wise, Tiki recipes are all over the map, calling for light, gold, and dark variations from Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Cuba, Guyana, JamaicaMartinique, and so on. It can get pretty overwhelming fast.

With a little thought and understanding of the main types of rum, you can make a pretty tasty classic Tiki drinks with just a few selections and substituting appropriately. My personal recommendations here strive for the the best mix of suitability and wide distribution in the US. You may have other rums that work equally well. As long as you have at least one from each category, you can go pretty far.

Jamaican: Smith & Cross, Appleton Estate Signature Blend (V/X), Coruba Dark, Hamilton Jamaican (there are both “gold” and “dark” versions of the Hamilton– same rum, different coloring.)

Demerara: El Dorado 5, Lemon Hart 80, Hamilton Demerara (86 proof).

151 Overproof: Lemon Hart 151 is the longstanding household name. Hamilton Demerara 151 is a good substitution; Bacardi 151, a relatively bland beast, is not. Gosling’s Black Seal 151, while flavorful, is not Demerara style like Lemon Hart.

Gold: Bacardi 8, Don Q Anejo, Plantation 5 (Barbados), Flor de Cana 7.

Aged white: Cana Brava, Plantation 3 Stars. Cana Brava is a bit drier, from Panama, whereas the 3 Stars is a blend of Barbados, Jamaican and Trinidad rums.

Agricole: Blanc (white) agricole is my preference in Tiki. Rhum JMRhum Clement, and Neisson all have solid choices here.

The above list is just a starting point, with my particular spin. As time and money allow, you can expand your set of rums, but for minimalist Tiki, having the right six or so bottles creates a solid base. While it pains me to not include offbeat rums like Wray & Nephew Overproof, they’re not called for enough to make the minimalist list. On the other hand, I explicitly called out Jamaican and agricole rums in their own categories because their particular pungent, funky flavors are a critical part of Tiki and can’t be replicated by your generic white, gold, or dark rum. For an alternate take on filling out your basic set of rums, has a substitutions page worth reading

You don't need this many rums to make kick-ass Tiki at home. But it is nice!
You don’t need this many rums to make kick-ass Tiki at home. But it is nice!

Bucket Two: Citrus

Let’s talk citrus juice. Here’s the breakdown of recipes by juice type:

  • Lime (11): Mai Tai, Zombie, Jet Pilot, Navy Grog, Daiquiri, Singapore Sling, 151 Swizzle, Planter’s Punch, Cobra’s Fang, Rum Barrel, Three Dots and a Dash
  • Orange (5): Painkiller, Fog Cutter, Cobra’s Fang, Rum Barrel, Three Dots and a Dash
  • Grapefruit (3): Jet Pilot, Navy Grog, Rum Barrel
  • Pineapple (3): Painkiller, Singapore Sling, Rum Barrel
  • Lemon (2): Hurricane, Fog Cutter

It’s no surprise, lime is the big winner. Tiki just isn’t Tiki without lime juice. Orange juice is a distant second. Ideally all five juice types are freshly squeezed, and any good Tiki bar will have exactly that. However, for the home Tikitender, that may be a tad excessive.

In my home bar I maintain a small stash of citrus and squeeze as needed. Limes, oranges, lemons, and grapefruit will keep for a few weeks with proper management. I buy lemons/limes in bulk at Costco and promptly refrigerate them in Ziploc bags. (There’s evidence to back up this approach.) While I buy lemons/limes in five pound bags, buying a few oranges and a grapefruits every few weeks is usually sufficient. If I just need an ounce or two of orange or grapefruit, and I know need more in the next few days, I’ll cut the fruit in quarters or halves to cover current needs, and wrap the remaining portion in plastic wrap. Sure, squeezing to order adds a few minutes in preparation time, but fresh squeezed juice is worth it. Remember: Don Beach and Trader Vic are always watching! (I’m envious of bartenders who have fresh squeezed juice by the quart, ready to go in containers.)

Keep your citrus fresh longer by using ziplock bags and storing in the refrigerator.
Keep your citrus fresh longer by using ziplock bags and storing in the refrigerator.

Fresh pineapple juice is a tougher story for the home crowd. Juicing pineapple in quantity is cumbersome and/or time consuming without the right tools. Centripetal juicers are inexpensive, but the resulting juice is over-aerated and foamy. Masticating juicers or hydraulic presses work better but are expensive. On very rare occasions, I see straight pineapple juice in the carton at the grocery store and take advantage of the opportunity. Unless I have an available pineapple and have planned ahead, I reluctantly use canned pineapple juice.  Trader Joe’s carry pineapple juice in small 8.45oz/250ml cans that are a great size for a night of cocktails, and is better than your basic six ounce can of Dole.

Bucket Three: Other Ingredients

With rum and citrus covered, here’s the fun part of assembling a decent set of Tiki ingredients. First the raw data:

  • Angostura Bitters(8): Zombie, Jet Pilot, 151 Swizzle, Singapore Sling, Planter’s Punch, Cobra’s Fang, Rum Barrel, Three Dots and a Dash
  • Falernum (6): Zombie, Jet Pilot, Planter’s Punch, Cobra’s Fang, Rum Barrel, Three Dots and a Dash
  • Pernod/Absinthe (5): Zombie, Jet Pilot, 151 Swizzle, Cobra’s Fang, Rum Barrel
  • Grenadine (4): Zombie, Singapore Sling, Planter’s Punch, Rum Barrel
  • Simple Syrup (4): Mai Tai, Daiquiri, 151 Swizzle, Planter’s Punch
  • Honey Mix (3): Navy Grog, Rum Barrel, Three Dots, Three Dots and a Dash
  • Orgeat (2): Mai Tai, Fog Cutter
  • Passion Fruit Syrup(2):  Hurricane, Cobra’s Fang
  • Pimento/Allspice Dram(2): Rum Barrel, Three Dots and a Dash
  • Brandy (2): Fog Cutter, Singapore Sling
  • Gin (2): Fog Cutter, Singapore Sling
  • Curacao/Triple Sec(2): Mai Tai, Singapore Sling
  • Club Soda (2): Navy Grog, Singapore Sling
  • Cinnamon Syrup (1): Jet Pilot
  • Coconut Crème (1): Painkiller
  • Don’s Mix (1): Zombie
  • Sherry (1): Fog Cutter
  • Cherry Heering (1): Singapore Sling
  • Benedictine (1): Singapore Sling

Viewed as listed above, I was very surprised – some of my beloved “essential” ingredients like cherry heering are used far less than I’d expect. The clear winner–and absolute Tiki essential–is Angostura bitters. Every home bartender should have a bottle at hand (I several quarts in reserve, like one does.) A four ounce bottle costs around $7, contributes to many drinks (use it a few dashes at a time), and keeps forever.

Falernum, used in six recipes, is the one “unusual” ingredient that might intimidate an aspiring home Tikitender. Despite it’s mystical-sounding name, it’s just a heavily spiced sugar syrup made from rum, lime peel, ginger, almonds, cloves, and other spices, depending on the recipe. It’s a fun home kitchen project, but takes a few days to infuse. There are many recipes out there, each a little different. For my money, Kaiser Penguin’s is a good starting point.

While making your own falernum is a Tiki wonk initiation rite, in a pinch, BG Reynolds and Fee Brothers sell non-alcoholic falernum syrups. As for Velvet Falernum, its flavor profile is quite a bit different than house made falernum – I find the Velvet Falernum much lighter and less intense than house made falernum.

Pernod, used in five recipes, might seem surprising in a list of Tiki ingredients, but there’s a good reason. Don the Beachcomber, father of many classic Tiki recipes, used six drops of Pernod in many of his recipes. It’s tempting to skip the Pernod, but unless you firmly hate the flavor of anise, it adds a pleasant background element– I highly recommend not skipping it. You may be hesitant to buy a bottle just for a recipe that calls for six drops; here’s my take: All you really need is an ounce or two. Acquire a small empty bottle with a dropper top, then hit up a friend with a nearly full bottle sitting on their shelf. Fill ‘er up for a small donation — Terms to be negotiated between you and your friend. In the absolute absence of Pernod, you can substitute other anise-flavored spirits like absinthe or herbsaint. Even though I have a full bottle of Pernod, I use the dropper bottle for quick dispensing.

Grenadine (pomegranate syrup) is something you can make easily enough at home — there are number of recipes online (such as Imbibe’s) with varying degrees of complexity. Alternately, Small Hand Foods has an excellent grenadine I can personally vouch for, as does BG Reynolds. Whatever you do, use real grenadine, not a cheap, corn-syrup based brand like Rose’s.

Simple syrup and honey syrup are fast and trivial to make in small batches that last a few weeks. Just add one part table sugar or honey (as appropriate) to one part water, then stir or shake to blend well till all the sugar or honey is fully dissolved. Refrigerate for optimal stability.

So there you have it – Angostura bitters, Falernum, a dropper vial of Pernod, grenadine, sugar and honey are the primary must-have ingredients. As for the remaining ingredients, you can acquire them as needed. Personally, I can’t imagine going without passion fruit syrup and orgeat in my arsenal. If I included more recipes, you’d see orgeat and passion fruit syrup rise in importance.

The Painkiller (Mrs. Wonk’s gateway Tiki drink), for example, is a superset of the Piña Colada, so coconut crème covers two recipes for the price of one. And if I take the oddball Singapore Sling (a Mrs. Wonk favorite) and Fog Cutter out of consideration, brandy, gin, sherry, cherry heering, and benedictine all fall off the list. But Mrs. Wonk would have something to say about that.

Tiki Professionals at work! Maybe don't try at home
Tiki Professionals at work! Maybe don’t try at home

Finishing touches

Ice:  Nearly all Tiki drinks call for crushed ice, so no half-moon ice cubes from your freezer, please! I have a Waring IC70 Ice Crusher, which works reasonably well and costs about $80. However, there are less expensive hand-cranked models available, and some kitchen blenders have an ice-crushing mode. In a pinch, a Lewis bag or kitchen towel along with a mallet can provide the crushed ice your Tiki drinks require—along with a bit of stress relief.

Garnish:  Tiki is all about the garnish – an un-festooned Tiki drink is a sad, sad sight. Luckily, you can easily up your garnish game in a few small steps. Fire is always tasteful in Tiki, so after squeezing those limes, hang on to the shells to use as your firepot. Here’s how: Remove as much of the remaining pulp as possible, then insert a piece of day-old bread to soak up your Tiki fuel of choice, e.g. lemon extract. A 3/4 inch cube of bread is a good starting point. Set the shell in the drink, and set it afire! (Just please watch your eyebrows and bangs if you dare to drink before the flame dies out.) For much more on why lemon extract and not overproof rum is the Tiki fuel of choice, check out this detailed article with tons of photos.

Even if you don’t set fire to them, a spent lime shell is the classic Mai Tai garnish.

Citrus shell, with bread cube, on fire.
Citrus shell, with bread cube, on fire.
Using a spent lime shell as a garnish
Using a spent lime shell as a garnish

A wide swath of peel from lemons and oranges can be arranged festively. My favorite trick is to use a Y-peeler to cut 1×3 inch strips from the fruit. I then coil the peel a few times and stick a toothpick through it to hold it in place, as you see below:

Tiki garnish with orange peel
Tiki garnish with orange peel

Fresh mint sprigs always add flair. We keep a small patch of mint growing in a backyard container (advisable, as it will take over your garden if you don’t keep it reined in), but it’s also easy to buy at the market and keep fresh in a water filled glass in the refrigerator. On my Instagram feed, people rave about my improvised lemon coil (above), topped with an inserted mint sprig, giving the impression of a tiny pineapple. And of course, fruit wedges (orange and pineapple in particular) are a quick and easy addition to up a drink’s tropicality.

Tiki garnish with lemon peel and mint
Tiki garnish with lemon peel and mint

Making top-notch Tiki at home requires more commitment than say, a Gin & Tonic, but let’s be honest, it’s infinitely more fun! With a modest investment in a few rums, a trip to the store for fresh citrus, and a handful of ingredients, you can make fairly faithful replications of many classic Tiki drinks. And if the Tiki bug bites you hard, you’ll enjoy the endless search for the next rum, the next exotic ingredient, and even more over-the-top garnishes.

Jason Alexander of Tacoma Cabana, winning Iron Tikitender 2014
Jason Alexander of Tacoma Cabana, winning Iron Tikitender 2014

33 thoughts on “Minimalist Tiki: What you truly need to make classic Tiki Cocktails

  1. First off, I’d like to thank you for this blog post. As frugal/tiki enthusiast and engineer, I appreciatedhow meticulously thought this out. Here are my thoughts:
    Lemons and Limes:
    I squeeze and freeze all Lemons and Limes the moment they hit my house. I then store these in the freezer in 4oz containers. The day of – I bring them out and place them on the counter. Not only is it as good as fresh squeezed, nothing goes to waste.
    I usually go for the following [which may piss off the purists, but keeps my budget in check]
    PR White: El Dorado 3
    PR Gold / Demerara: El Dorado 5
    Overproof: Hamilton 151
    Agricole: Rhum Clement VSOP
    Jamaican (Gold) : Appleton XV
    Jamaican (Dark): Blackwell
    This means: 6 essential bottles for me that pretty much cover the whole spectrum.
    Bonus Bottles: Smith & Cross [pretty cool funk bomb]
    Plantation Pineapple Rum [Great on occasion
    Plantation dark [Cheap brown for $15, why not?]
    El Dorado 15 or Appleton 12 [Aged sippers…?]
    Falernum: A must! I make Kaiser Pinguins’ lime-less version because it lasts longer. You need to modify each recipe to bump up the lime to compensate but it works great. Very consistent!
    Orgeat: Ive tried making Orgeat countless times…but my guests prefer Torani’s artificialness in a Mai-Tai. Shrug! Works for me.
    Cinnamon Syrup: .5 sugar, .5 water, 2 smash cinnamon sticks for 2 hours.
    Passionfruit Syrup: Equal parts rich simple & Goya Frozen Pulp.
    Grenadine: Equal parts Sugar and Pom.
    Thanks for sharing!

    1. Great comment, and much appreciated.

      I’ve frozen lemon and lime juices on occasion, when I have too many, but in general I try to squeeze to order, or at most, keep some in a small mason jar for a day or two.

      Your rum list looks solid, given your desire to keep it simple. My only thought is that the Appleton and Blackwell’s are particularly funky. My main mixing Jamaicans are Smith & Cross, Coruba, and Hamilton. The Mezan XO is also really funky, at about $33.

      My falernum is limeless as well. I make a modified version of some recipe. It may be Kaiser Penguin’s.

      Orgeat: Agreed. I gave up on making it. I’m pretty happy with Giffard, or Small Hand, but the latter can be spendy.

      Passionfruit: I get Auntie Lilikoi for cheap. It’s far better than bottled stuff.

    2. If you have the tools you can try this technique by Greg from How to Drink.
      I’ve tried it a couple of times and it is really delicious and keeps for months when refrigerated. There are very few industrial options for orgeat here, so it’s either the homemade one or the one from monin.

      Also, I think the best cinnamon syrup is made when you boil the sticks in the water to really extract a lot of flavour really fast. Take like 2-5% more water then you would normally use in a 1:1 syrup, boil the sticks in the water for a few minutes, remove sticks and add sugar. Stir until dissolved.

  2. Awesome, I will check out Auntie Lily. Goya is super cheap though you can find it in the ethnic markets usually (freezer section).

    As for Jamaicans I have never found Coruba locally, so im stuck with S&C and Blackwell. I find Blackwell to be more molasis than funk, and S&C all funk! So depends on what you want 🙂

  3. Mr. Wonk,

    Smuggler’s cove’s book splits rums into 8 categories. Pick anything in those categories and youre good to go! Seems like a great choice to this confusing topic.

    1. > Pick anything in those categories, and youre good to go.

      I don’t believe it’s simple. If you read my Smuggler’s Cove book review (also here on the site), you’ll note that I make a clear distinction between categories and flavor profiles. Also as noted, there are numerous examples of rums in the same category, but vastly different flavor profiles. The example I gave was from the “blended aged” category. Nobody will claim that Cockspur VSOR and Dos Maderas 5+5 have anywhere near the same flavor profile.

      1. You picked two extreme examples, and for the most part, 90%+ work well and give you a good representation of the drinks original intention.

        1. > You picked two extreme examples…

          You and I may know that, but does the person who’s just getting into rum and building out their collection?

          Without even trying there’s another example: Pot still unaged. Smith & Cross and Prichard’s Crystal Rum. Very different flavor profiles.

      2. Spot on Matt. After using Martin’s lists as a basis from which to build bar stock, I too began to realize that some of the rums in the same “Cate’s Category” (e.g. Black Blended for example) have entirely different flavor profiles (Goslings Black Seal vs Hamilton Guyana 86) no way do those taste similar. I enjoy knowing the distillation method and aging information that Maestro Cate breaks out but man the differences…

    2. Smuggler’s Cove actually has 21 categories of rum, but then they make a selection of 8 categories to really start out with which should give you plenty of variation to make all their recipes.

  4. I see that you left cocktail cherries off the list, but they are a key garnish in drinks like Three Dots and a Dash. Which cocktail cherries do you prefer for Tiki drinks?

    1. Good point! To be honest, I wrote that story before I’d discovered the joy of 2 lb cans of Amarena cherries. $20 at Amazon. Le bargain.

  5. Excellent post! Just getting started and this is a huge help. I love the DIY approach to everything but it can get overwhelming. This is a great guide in addition to Smuggler’s Cove.

  6. Hi – I’m just getting started in the tiki world, and are really enjoying your blog! I’m from Danmark, and here we have cuban Havana Club readily available. Could you tell me where the 3-year and 7-year Havana Club fits in to your ‘categories’? That would be very helpful. Thanks for being a great ressource!

    1. Thank you so much! And great question.

      The categories work from most specific to least specific.

      Havana Club is a Cuban rum. It’s neither Jamaican or Demerara, so it can’t be any of the associated three categories.

      It’s not a cane juice rum, so not eligible in the Aged Agricole category.

      The HC 3 is lightly aged, and filtered for color. Thus, it goes in the lightly aged/filter category.

      The HC 7 is longer aged, and not filtered for color. The only remaining category is moderately aged. And indeed, HC 7 meets the overall guidelines for being a moderately aged rum.

      Hope this helps!

  7. Thanks! Can I also ask for your advice on Lemon Hart 151 or a substitute? It seems it is almost impossible to find online, or maybe I’m just looking in the wrong places? I own a very nice OFTD but I’m not sure it is really a substitute. Thanks again.

    1. I’m guessing you’re in Europe. The situation for Overproof Demerara rums is dire there, from what my friends tell me. I have told DDL that there’s a big market opportunity there for a 151!

      1. Won’t Wood’s work? It might be mere 57% instead if 151, but otherwise it is great, and at £20 it is among best quality/value in the market

        1. I’m sure it taste great but there is quite a leap from 57% to 75,5%

          I actually managed to buy a couple of bottles of lemon hart 151 from the us (shipping was way, way more than the actual price) and it’s working out great, but from what I hear maybe I should see if I can get some Hamilton 151 instead? It’s pretty much just as impossible to find in Europe as Lemon Hart, so it’s going to be some pretty overpriced bottles again, I guess. Anybody has any recommendations?

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